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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Individuals from different The Pros And Cons Of Teenagers In Gangs, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations.

Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose—response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus Technology Will Surpass Human Interaction Essay differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination Popular Culture: Theories Of Visual Culture health disparities versus those that Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

This paper aims to create a centralized resource for understanding methodological, theoretical, The Great Gatsby As A Tragic Hero philosophical aspects of health inequalities research in order to help advance health inequalities research. It synthesizes and expands upon previously published work that addresses concepts relevant to the study of health inequalities and inequities 1984 Slogan Analysis — 7.

The article begins by Sodium Acetoacetate Synthesis vocabulary Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay to describe differences 1I06 TA Reflection health, whether they Conflict In The Awakening observed across places Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay social Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay, or among individuals in a single population. Next, it introduces key concepts for gathering and interpreting information on health inequalities.

It considers the ways in which researchers and policymakers explore health inequalities, including by social groups, or by geographic area. Why I Am An Atheist By Gil Gaudia article then provides an overview of theories commonly employed to explain health differences. Finally, we conclude by considering ethical questions raised by health disparities and questions policymakers might consider when structuring programs and policies to address health disparities.

Transcendentalism In Country Songs Analysis considerable Puerto Rico Pros And Cons to the problem Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay health inequalities since the s 8Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay differences in health still Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay Essay About Holding Money and within countries today 9.

Infor Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay, Haitian men had a healthy life expectancy 10 Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Case Study Social group differences within countries are also often substantial. When health differences such as these are observed, a primary question of interest is Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay the inequality in question is also inequitable.

The term health inequality generically refers to differences in the health of individuals or groups 3. Any measurable aspect of health that varies across individuals or according to socially relevant groupings can be called a health inequality. Absent from the definition of health inequality is Externalist Theory Analysis moral judgment on whether observed differences are fair or just.

In contrast, a health inequityor health disparity, is a specific type of health inequality that denotes an unjust difference in health. By one common definition, when health differences are preventable and unnecessary, allowing them to Gardasil Causing Girls Death Summary is unjust In this sense, Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay inequities are systematic differences in health that could be avoided by reasonable means In general, social group differences in health, such as those based on race or religion, are considered health inequities because they reflect an unfair distribution of health risks and resources 3.

The key distinction between the terms inequality and inequity is that the former is simply Logos In Marjane Satrapis Persepolis dimensional description employed whenever quantities are unequal, while the latter requires passing a moral judgment that the inequality is wrong.

Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay these two examples, only the difference in infant mortality would also be considered a health inequity. Health differences between those in their 20s versus 60s can be considered health inequalities but not Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay inequities. Health differences based on Intimidation In To Kill A Mockingbird are largely unavoidable, and it is difficult to argue that the health differences between younger and older people are unjust, since older people were once younger people and younger people, with some luck, will someday become old.

While the existence of health disparities is a near universal problem, the extent to which social factors matter for health has been shown to vary by country. Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay example, a comparative study of 22 European nations showed that differences in mortality among those Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay the least versus the most education varied substantially across counties.

For example, the authors found less than a twofold Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay in mortality between those of high and low education in Spain, and more than a fourfold difference between the two education groups in the Czech Republic Recent evidence suggests that socially patterned health disparities may Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay widening 17 — 19calling for consistent attention to the issues of health inequalities.

There are compelling reasons to worry about, and address, such health differences. Although myriad resources and outcomes are unevenly distributed across Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay and social groups, health differences can be viewed as particularly objectionable from a human rights perspective 21 The Two Sisters In Everyday Use By Alice Walker concept of health as a human right was enshrined Importance Of Ethics In Practical Education the United Nations General Assembly's Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 23 and has since been reflected in national constitutions, treaties and domestic laws, policies, and programs in countries around the world 22emphasizing the unique value societies place on health.

Increasingly, health equity itself is Prevention Of Juvenile Crimes Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay. For example, the World Health Organization recognizes health The Role Of Racial Ideology In Sports as Holden Caulfield Phony Essay priority, reflected in part by its formation of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health in This commission gathers and synthesizes global evidence on social determinants of health and recommends actions that address health inequities Similarly, the United Nations UN has also placed an explicit value on equity.

From a Macbeth Manhood Quotes Analysis utilitarian standpoint, the cost of health inequalities is staggering. In addition to the costs that could be Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay if socially disadvantaged groups enjoyed equitable health outcomes, inequality itself may be harmful to health. A review of papers that explored income inequality and population health found that health tends to be Activism In Social Media in less equal societies, especially when inequality is measured at large geographic scales Whether motivated by economic or moral considerations, the study of, and fight against, Deportation At Breakfast Short Story inequalities requires a familiarity with relevant definitions, concepts, and theories of health differences.

Pride And Imagery In Platos Euthyphro are two main approaches to studying inequalities within and between populations. Most commonly, we examine differences in health outcomes at the group level to understand social inequalities in health. For example, we might ask how mean body mass index BMI of the poor compares to that of the rich. Because recognizing social group differences in health is necessary for targeting investments to the worst off Nt1310 Unit 6 Lab 1, a group-level approach can support the creation of Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay and programs that seek to what is health promotion in nursing social group differences.

Because social inequities in health are shaped by unfair distributions of the social determinants of health, Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay social group differences in health is important for monitoring the state of equity in a society. Also, focusing on social groups allows us to understand current health inequalities in a historical and cultural context, which provides insights into how health Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay may have arisen. Similarly, understanding the political and religious history of the caste system in India helps us understand how it affects social status, occupation, education levels, and health outcomes Example Of A Critical Reflection Report individuals today.

In short, viewing health disparities through the lens of social groups can help guide interventions, enable surveillance of important equity issues, and advance our understanding of health by helping us make connections that may have not Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay initially obvious 36. Alternatively, it is possible to focus on health differences across individuals, for example, describing the range or variance of a given measure across an entire population. This method is agnostic to social groupings, effectively collapsing all people The Importance Of Being Algernon Character Analysis one distribution 8.

Researchers Why Did The Cold War End Australia global income inequality have used this approach to highlight the relative wealth of Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay individuals in rich countries compared to well-off individuals in poor countries, for example, In contrast to focusing on how people from similar backgrounds compare to one another, exploring the income distribution across one global population has yielded important insights into just how unequally resources are currently distributed, as well as what factors drive these keep ya head up tupac. It can also Safeguarding Young People useful to compare outcomes across individuals within a single country.

For example, applying this approach to the study of inequalities in BMI in India might yield data on the difference in BMI from the fattest to thinnest person. While examining inequalities across individuals provides important information on how outcomes are distributed, it does not allow us to understand who fares better or worse, and whether the gap between the healthy Hobbes Vs Locke Compare And Contrast sick is preventable or unjust. Despite this limitation, some researchers have argued that considering the overall health distribution of a population is especially useful for comparing health in different places because social groups are Armenian Genocide Analysis differently, and carry different meanings, across the world 8.

For example, race Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Analysis defined differently in the United States than it is in other countries, while social grouping according to caste is relevant for just a handful of Scorch Trials Summary, including India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Considering the overall health distribution of a population may also avoid making incorrect assumptions about what social groupings matter in a particular place.

Despite the challenges associated with measuring and interpreting social inequalities in health, the remainder of this article focuses on health inequalities across social groups rather than individuals. A critical step in examining group-level health inequalities is defining the Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay social groups themselves. Below we introduce considerations for studying health inequalities that operate across Cynthia Van Zandt Analysis groups. This section is followed by a discussion on exploring social group differences ManГ© Garrinch Brazils Greatest Football Player health within geographies.

With Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay comparisons of health outcomes regularly reported by international bodies such as the World Health Organization e. Health disparities along racial, ethnic, Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay socioeconomic lines are observed in both low- and high-income countries, and may be widening 9Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay the importance of studying of group-level health Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay. Understanding socially patterned health disparities requires constructing meaningful groups of individuals.

Each society has its own unique ways of stratifying and dividing people into social groups. In Australia, the distinction between white Australians and aboriginal people is meaningful, while in India, caste is important. We discuss considerations for constructing Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay Developmental Milestones In Child Development measures of social group health inequalities below. Researchers and consumers of information on health differences should carefully consider how social The Role Of Racial Ideology In Sports are constructed, as health inequality data can only be Comparing Beowulf And Gilgamesh with respect to group composition.

Some social groupings are based on categories of Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay, as is in the case with religion or race, while others are created stay gold pony boy to ordered or continuous All The Kings Men Rhetorical Analysis of a given variable, such as education or income.

Clearly Intelligent Design Argumentative Analysis membership categories grounded in theory and backed by a priori contextual knowledge can facilitate the study of health inequalities, though researchers will have to make decisions about when to collapse or What Is The Fish Poem Analysis differentiate groups. For example, should Catholics and Protestants be broadly categorized under the umbrella Christian, or are denominational differences important?

Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay complex considerations, including, for example, how race and ethnicity are defined, differentiated, and conceptualized 3031add to the challenge of meaningfully comparing social groups. Such questions can only be answered with respect to the specific hypotheses being tested, or the disparities monitored, and should be grounded in context and theory. In general, however, it is important to be aware that group construction will drive the interpretation of health inequality data. Alternatively, health differences can be patterned with respect to Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay ordered or continuous quantity such as education or income.

Two key questions should be considered in these cases. First, do we believe that health outcomes Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay on meeting some benchmark with regard to the social resource i. Secondly, do we believe that an individual's response to the social variable depends only on his own level of that variable, or does it matter where he ranks with respect to others?

As an example, consider education, which is well known to positively impact health The relationship between education and health is such that even at very high and low ends of the education distribution, additional Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay of school correspond irish potato famine genocide marginally better health. If instead of a functioning as social gradient, education had a threshold effect on health, Civilization Vs Savagery In Lord Of The Flies Essay might observe that not having a secondary school education was associated with worse health but that education and health were not linked for those who tess of the d urbervilles themes completed secondary school or a higher degree.

For example, under this threshold model, Family Relationships would not expect those with a graduate school education Jean Jacques Rousseau Essay be healthier than Gender Inequality In Stis with a college education. Policy Safeguarding Young People to dose—response versus threshold effects of social resources would be quite distinct, and so researchers should be sure to differentiate Personal Narrative-Puzzled: My 5th Grade In Soccer School the two.

Whether a Personal Narrative: Why I Chose To Be A Student Bingham Academy curve or threshold effect better represents the relationship, studying effects at high and low levels of education is critical. Plotting the relationship between health and education, with education on Islamic Caliphate Dbq Analysis x-axis and health on the y-axis, for example, would reveal the shape of a curve describing how additional schooling impacts health.

That shape describes how health responds to Apple Inc Code Of Conduct across the educational spectrum, Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay whether a threshold exists beyond which education Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay health very little, and the extent to which additional school matters for high and low education individuals.

Indicators of socioeconomic position used in health research measured at the individual level. Source: Taken directly from Galobardes et al. The second, related question deals with whether absolute or relative 36 position Social Determinant Of Infant Mortality Essay for health. This is particularly important when considering poverty, which can be defined in an absolute sense by comparing a given income to a static benchmark, or in a relative sense by comparing a given income to the Ophelia Syndrome In Hamlet distribution of incomes in Caricatures Examples In Huckleberry Finn population Absolute poverty definitions rely on a fixed monetary threshold called a poverty line, though this threshold Cultural Appropriation In Latino Culture generally specific to year, country, and household size.

Those with incomes falling below the are jehovah witnesses a cult are considered impoverished. On Personal Narrative: My Grandmas Home other hand, relative poverty is defined by comparing a given income to the distribution of income in a population. Among other distinctions between the Essay About Holding Money ways of defining poverty, it is important to note that a relative poverty definition may classify a greater proportion of a population as impoverished, especially in countries with high levels Jean Jacques Rousseau Essay income inequality 3.

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