➊ Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism

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Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism

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During the Clarence Thomas sexual harassment scandal in , Steinem voiced strong support for Anita Hill and suggested that one day Hill herself would sit on the Supreme Court. In , Steinem co-founded Choice USA , a non-profit organization that mobilizes and provides ongoing support to a younger generation that lobbies for reproductive choice. Steinem has stated, "I think the fact that I've become a symbol for the women's movement is somewhat accidental. A woman member of Congress, for example, might be identified as a member of Congress; it doesn't mean she's any less of a feminist but she's identified by her nearest male analog.

Well, I don't have a male analog so the press has to identify me with the movement. I suppose I could be referred to as a journalist, but because Ms. There's no other slot to put me in. Contrary to popular belief, Steinem did not coin the feminist slogan "A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle. Another phrase sometimes wrongly attributed to Steinem is, "If men could get pregnant, abortion would be a sacrament. On May 24, , International Women's Day for Disarmament, thirty women— including two Nobel Peace laureates and retired Colonel Ann Wright — from 15 different countries linked arms with 10, Korean women, stationing themselves on both sides of the DMZ to urge a formal end to the Korean War , the reunification of families divided during the war, and a peace building process with women in leadership positions to resolve seventy years of hostility following WWII.

It will be holding international peace symposiums both in Pyongyang and Seoul in which women from both North Korea and South Korea can share experiences and ideas of mobilizing women to stop the Korean crisis. It is especially believed that the role of women in this act would help and support the reunification of family members divided by the split prolonged for 70 years. She is also the chair of the advisory board of Apne Aap Women Worldwide, an organization fighting sex trafficking and inter-generational prostitution in India, founded by Ruchira Gupta. Steinem's involvement in presidential campaigns stretches back to her support of Adlai Stevenson in the presidential campaign. A proponent of civil rights and fierce critic of the Vietnam War , Steinem was initially drawn to Senator Eugene McCarthy because of his "admirable record" on those issues, but in meeting him and hearing him speak, she found him "cautious, uninspired, and dry".

Kennedy , even as "his real opponent, Hubert Humphrey , went free". Daley that he control the rampaging police and the bloodshed in the streets". Steinem was reluctant to re-join the McGovern campaign, as although she had brought in McGovern's single largest campaign contributor in , she " still had been treated like a frivolous pariah by much of McGovern's campaign staff". In April , Steinem remarked that he "still doesn't understand the Women's Movement".

McGovern ultimately excised the abortion issue from the party's platform, and recent publications show McGovern was deeply conflicted on the issue. The consensus of the meeting of women delegates held by the caucus had been to fight for the minority plank on reproductive freedom; indeed our vote had supported the plank nine to one. So fight we did, with three women delegates speaking eloquently in its favor as a constitutional right. One male Right-to-Life zealot spoke against, and Shirley MacLaine also was an opposition speaker, on the grounds that this was a fundamental right but didn't belong in the platform. We made a good showing. Clearly we would have won if McGovern's forces had left their delegates uninstructed and thus able to vote their consciences.

However, Germaine Greer flatly contradicted Steinem's account, reporting, " Jacqui Ceballos called from the crowd to demand abortion rights on the Democratic platform, but Bella [Abzug] and Gloria stared glassily out into the room," thus killing the abortion rights platform," and asking "Why had Bella and Gloria not helped Jacqui to nail him on abortion? What reticence, what loserism had afflicted them? The cover of Harper' s that month read, "Womanlike, they did not want to get tough with their man, and so, womanlike, they got screwed. In the run-up to the election, Steinem voiced fierce criticism of the Bush administration, asserting, "There has never been an administration that has been more hostile to women's equality, to reproductive freedom as a fundamental human right, and has acted on that hostility," adding, "If he is elected in , abortion will be criminalized in this country.

Steinem was an active participant in the presidential campaign , and praised both the Democratic front-runners, commenting,. Both Senators Clinton and Obama are civil rights advocates, feminists , environmentalists , and critics of the war in Iraq Both have resisted pandering to the right, something that sets them apart from any Republican candidate, including John McCain. Both have Washington and foreign policy experience; George W. Bush did not when he first ran for president. Nevertheless, Steinem endorsed Senator Hillary Clinton , citing her broader experience, and saying that the nation was in such bad shape it might require two terms of Clinton and two of Obama to fix it.

She also made headlines for a New York Times op-ed in which she cited gender and not race as "probably the most restricting force in American life". Steinem again drew attention for, according to the New York Observer , seeming "to denigrate the importance of John McCain 's time as a prisoner of war in Vietnam"; Steinem's broader argument "was that the media and the political world are too admiring of militarism in all its guises". Following McCain's selection of Sarah Palin as his running mate, Steinem penned an op-ed in which she labeled Palin an "unqualified woman" who "opposes everything most other women want and need," described her nomination speech as "divisive and deceptive", called for a more inclusive Republican Party, and concluded that Palin resembled " Phyllis Schlafly , only younger".

In an HBO interview with Bill Maher , Steinem, when asked to explain the broad support for Bernie Sanders among young Democratic women, responded, "When you're young, you're thinking, 'Where are the boys? The boys are with Bernie. Steinem endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the U. In May , Redstockings , a radical feminist group, published a report that Steinem and others put together on the Vienna Youth Festival and its attendees for the Independent Research Service. In her book My Life on the Road , Steinem wrote about the relationship she had with the CIA in the s and s and defended the CIA relationship, saying: "In my experience [the CIA] was completely different from its image; it was liberal, nonviolent and honorable.

Steinem was diagnosed with breast cancer in [] and trigeminal neuralgia in Steinem has no biological children. Previously, she had had a four-year relationship with the publisher Mortimer Zuckerman. Commenting on aging, Steinem says that as she approached 60 she felt like she entered a new phase in life that was free of the "demands of gender" that she faced from adolescence onward. Although most frequently considered a liberal feminist , Steinem has repeatedly characterized herself as a radical feminist. So it makes it harder for me to take the divisions with great seriousness. In , Steinem wrote the article on female genital mutilation that brought it into the American public's consciousness; the article, "The International Crime of Female Genital Mutilation," was published in the March issue of Ms.

On circumcision , she commented, "These patriarchal controls limit men's sexuality too Speaking for myself, I stand with many brothers in eliminating that practice too. Steinem has frequently voiced her disapproval of the obscurantism and abstractions some claim to be prevalent in feminist academic theorizing. That's careerism. These poor women in academia have to talk this silly language that nobody can understand in order to be accepted But I recognize the fact that we have this ridiculous system of tenure, that the whole thrust of academia is one that values education, in my opinion, in inverse ratio to its usefulness—and what you write in inverse relationship to its understandability.

Academics are forced to write in language no one can understand so that they get tenure. They have to say 'discourse', not 'talk'. Knowledge that is not accessible is not helpful. It becomes aerialised—and I think it's important that women's experiences be given a narrative. In addition to feminism, Steinem has also been a prominent advocate for analyzing the Kinsey Reports. Steinem has criticized pornography , which she distinguishes from erotica , writing: "Erotica is as different from pornography as love is from rape, as dignity is from humiliation, as partnership is from slavery, as pleasure is from pain.

In fact, much of the tension and drama comes from the clear idea that one person is dominating the other. On the issue of same-sex pornography, Steinem asserts, "Whatever the gender of the participants, all pornography including male-male gay pornography is an imitation of the male-female, conqueror-victim paradigm, and almost all of it actually portrays or implies enslaved women and master. What will exist is a variety of alternative life-styles. Since the population explosion dictates that childbearing be kept to a minimum, parents-and-children will be only one of many "families": couples, age groups, working groups, mixed communes, blood-related clans, class groups, creative groups.

Single women will have the right to stay single without ridicule, without the attitudes now betrayed by "spinster" and "bachelor. Paradoxically, the number of homosexuals may get smaller. With fewer over-possessive mothers and fewer fathers who hold up an impossibly cruel or perfectionist idea of manhood, boys will be less likely to be denied or reject their identity as males. Although Steinem did not mention or advocate same-sex marriage in any published works or interviews for more than three decades, she again expressed support for same-sex marriage in the early s, stating in that "[the] idea that sexuality is only okay if it ends in reproduction oppresses women—whose health depends on separating sexuality from reproduction—as well as gay men and lesbians.

On October 2, , Steinem clarified her remarks on transgender people in an op-ed for The Advocate , writing that critics failed to consider that her essay was "written in the context of global protests against routine surgical assaults, called female genital mutilation by some survivors. Those lives should be celebrated, not questioned. On June 15, , Steinem co-wrote a letter with Mona Sinha to the editor of The New York Times , in which they opposed the elimination of civil rights protections for transgender healthcare by the Trump administration. In it, they made note of precolonial American traditions of gender variance and claimed that "the health of any of us affects the health of all of us, and excluding trans people endangers us all.

In , Steinem appeared in season 2, episode 13 of The L Word. In the musical Legally Blonde , which premiered in , Steinem is mentioned in the scene where Elle Woods wears a flashy Bunny costume to a party, and must pretend to be dressed as Gloria Steinem "researching her feminist manifesto 'I Was A Playboy Bunny ' ". The actual name of the piece by Steinem being referred to here is "A Bunny's Tale". In , Who Is Gloria Steinem?

Also in , Steinem appeared in season 1, episode 8, of the television show The Sixties. Also in , Steinem appeared in season 6, episode 3, of the television show The Good Wife. In , Steinem was featured in the catalog of clothing retailer Lands' End. After an outcry from anti-abortion customers, the company removed Steinem from their website, stating on their Facebook page: "It was never our intention to raise a divisive political or religious issue, so when some of our customers saw the recent promotion that way, we heard them.

We sincerely apologize for any offense. In Jennifer Lopez 's music video for her song " Ain't Your Mama ", Steinem can be heard saying part of her " Address to the Women of America " speech, specifically, "This is no simple reform. Also in , the television series Woman premiered, featuring Steinem as producer and host; it is a documentary series concerning sexist injustice and violence worldwide. The Glorias is an American biographical film about Steinem; it premiered in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American activist and journalist.

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Archived from the original on November 21, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved October 15, May 31, Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved March 1, They found that Gestalt Therapy was as effective as other modalities. In fact, the scholars observed that the pre-post treatment difference in their research was comparable to the results observed in studies that analyzed other clinical models, using the CORE method of assessment.

Farahzadi and Masafi [38] found the same results upon studying the effectiveness of Gestalt and cognitive-behavioral play therapies to decrease dysthymic disorders and the intensity of symptoms in Iranian children. Instead they observed significant difference in the mean of two clinical models and control group. In particular, the most important feature of both clinical model seems the warm relationship accompanied by confidence-building in the initial sessions.

That permitted to children to be able to share their denied feelings fear, timidity, sadness and then to express and to talk about these feelings. They recognized their effectiveness in patients with forms of depression against a control group. While the therapeutic groups showed significant differences between pre-test and post-test results, with an important decreasing in the depression degree, no difference was observed in the control group.

The aim of this paper was to analyze the state of literature concerning GT effectiveness. In general, we revealed the lack of scientific attention toward GT empirical assessment. In fact, the majority of papers that we found in international literature are essays, where the scholars reported their reflections as well as clinical examples concerning GT and its concepts, methods, and techniques.

Empirical researches using appropriate methods are scarce, so much that we were only able to select 11 papers considered useful for our review. This is both in line with the tendency to be overlooked of humanistic psychotherapies in the scientific and health settings [8] Elliott et al. Our reviewed papers involve empirical researches that appear to confirm and strengthen the consideration that GT is an effective and acceptable clinical model. Thus, it was proven that the effectiveness of the clinical model was comparable to other similar clinical approaches, such as humanistic-experiential therapies [8] [9]. Moreover, in terms of the implementation of GT in group settings, the papers reported the efficacy of GT and its concepts, methods, and techniques for various issue types, even socio-professional and not only psychopathological.

It appears to be an affirmed clinical model that may be applied to numerous social contexts. This appears to be in line with what was claimed by various Gestalt scholars and clinicians who—though sometimes in different ways—have contributed to understand the GT applications not only in clinical contexts, but also in social and health situations. In terms of the research method quality of the reviewed papers, we have observed certain trends and limitations that still make it difficult to generalize the findings.

The papers reported GT applied to group intervention. No studies concerning other clinical settings—such as individuals, couples, or families—were reported. This was a shortcoming of the review, in that GT has also been applied to such settings, with interesting considerations being made [44]. While presenting certain gaps in literature related to the phenomenon, the review of findings allows to support the importance of developing on the subject to generate further knowledge about the effectiveness of the clinical praxis. Such goal is central for GT, because the clinical model suffers a lack of empirical evidence. We believe that GT should reach a greater consideration in the scientific and academic contexts, but to achieve this it is necessary, as affirmed by Boswell, et al.

A dialogue between researchers and clinicians is also important. To this regard, Dattilio, Edwards and Fishman [46] affirmed the need to overcome the divide between researchers and practitioners in the field of psychotherapy. In particular, they stressed the need to overcome the positivist paradigm—which fails to provide for context-based practical knowledge—and to use, instead, a mixed methods paradigm, involving pragmatism and multiplicity.

While our systematic review allows to have a general idea of the state of the art of knowledge and to fill the gaps and critical issues concerning the interesting topic, there are certain considerations to be made. First of all, the selection of keywords and peer-reviewed journals in Italian and English language limited the possibility to analyze additional studies published between and consisting mainly of clinical and theoretical essays.

We have only considered such studies—in part—in the first section concerning general knowledge about the topic, and indeed they have allowed us to convey a broader picture of the analyzed subject matter. Moreover, our review did not use meta-analysis, which may be more accurate to understand the topic, given that knowledge concerning the subject was relatively scarce. Therefore, the results and conclusions must be interpreted with caution, as it was difficult to present certain inferences on the importance, effects, and ways of solving the issue. Another limitation of our study is that the narrative synthesis is an interpretation by the authors. In conclusion, despite the above limitations, our review provides a full picture of the art state about GT effectiveness, highlighting some progress in the field of this clinical approach that has suffered from a lack of scientific recognition over the years.

As we can see, however, the studies are still scarce and there is still a long way that has been done for being able to fill the gap between research and clinical. About that, our review allows identifying challenges for future research concerning GT. Secondly, we affirmed the necessity of a wider range of interesting in-depth GT studies, incorporating different variables identified in GT literature, in order to promote a more accurate and dynamic understanding of its effectiveness.

Besides, a more careful rating of the differences in situations, contexts, variables, concepts and techniques, as well as personal, psychopathological, and social characteristics is often forgotten in the reviewed studies, while the latter should subscribe to the tendency toward complex research designs. This is in line with the various studies in psychotherapy effectiveness literature that sustained the importance of focusing on the process, and not only on the outcomes, of psychotherapy. In: Roubal, J. Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand, 13, In: Lambert, M. Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand, 11, Psychotherapy, 50, A Meta-Analytic Review.

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Real People Press, Lafayette. In: Zerbetto, R. Gestalt Review, 5, Julian Press, New York. The British Gestalt Journal, 1, Franco Angeli, Milano. In: Peduto, A. In: Levine, T. British Gestalt Journal, 20, Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, Procedia—Social and Behavioral Science, 33, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, , Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 14, Emotion, Space and Society, 25, International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 20, In: Ferrara, A.

International Journal of Psychotherapy, 20, In: Barlow, D. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47, Home Journals Article. DOI: Abstract Gestalt therapy GT is a humanistic clinical approach. Share and Cite:. Raffagnino, R. Open Journal of Social Sciences , 7 , Introduction The gap between psychotherapeutic research and the clinical praxis is broad, and this is particularly true for certain clinical approaches that—due to their theoretical principles and methodology—distance themselves from the empirical-positivistic methods of scientific research.

Theoretical Background 2. Psychotherapy Effectiveness The studies concerning psychotherapy effectiveness have made much progress, mainly by proving—through rigorous investigations—that this care form can be effective for patients, and that different clinical-theoretical models show similar results [5]. Concepts, Principles, and Techniques of Gestalt Therapy The pioneer of GT was Perls [20] who, basing his approach on Gestalt psychology Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Kohler , put the principles of the human as a total entity into practice.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. References [ 1 ] Roubal, J. Journals Menu. Contact us. All Rights Reserved. Roubal, J. Doric, J. Elliott, R. Fogarty, M. Lambert, M. Tolin, D. Langle, A. Mullings, B. Vrana, G. Cuijpers, P. Wampold, B. Greenberg, L. Herrmann, I. Malin, A. Wong, K. Rihacek, T. Whelton, W. Perls, F. Boris, G. Bloom, D. Yontef, G. Zerbetto, R. Spagnuolo Lobb, M. Delisle, G. Zinker, J. Clemmens, M. Stevens, C. Arip, M. Draghici, R. Holzinger, B. Farahzadi, M.

In Marchshe addressed the first national conference of Stewardesses for Women's Rights, Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism she Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism to support throughout its existence. Retrieved June Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism, Alain Leroy Locke was one of Personal Narrative: My Involvement With Social Activism first persons of African descent in America to Casas Environmental Impacts a doctoral degree in Philosophy Harvard University,

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